THE ESSENCE PROJECT

Residential care home with nursing

Case studies

Read the full case study for 'Person-centred support for people living with dementia in care homes: economic evidence' here (PDF)
Michela Tinelli, Renee Romeo, Martin Knapp, Danielle Guy 2019

KEY POINTS

  • Almost all (95%) of the average cost of care home residence (£792 per week) is accounted for by room and board charges. Hospital contacts contribute the largest proportion of the additional healthcare costs. The absence of an association between cost and needs emphasizes the importance of a more needs-based service system which could result in clinical and economic advantages.
  • Person-centred, integrated, and in-reach care home services responding to the needs of individual residents may improve health outcomes and quality of life at reasonable costs.
  • Interventions providing good value for money, similar to the Wellbeing and Health for People with Dementia or Enhanced Care Home Outcomes interventions are good value for money.

Evidence

Impact of person-centred care training and person-centred activities on quality of life, agitation, and antipsychotic use in people with dementia living in nursing homes: a cluster randomised controlled trial.
Ballard C, Corbett A, Orrell M, et al Public Library of Science: Medicine, 15, e1002500. 2018

Abstract
Background

Agitation is a common, challenging symptom affecting large numbers of people with dementia and impacting on quality of life (QoL). There is an urgent need for evidence-based, cost-effective psychosocial interventions to improve these outcomes, particularly in the absence of safe, effective pharmacological therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a person-centred care and psychosocial intervention incorporating an antipsychotic review, WHELD, on QoL, agitation, and antipsychotic use in people with dementia living in nursing homes, and to determine its cost.
Methods and findings

This was a randomised controlled cluster trial conducted between 1 January 2013 and 30 September 2015 that compared the WHELD intervention with treatment as usual (TAU) in people with dementia living in 69 UK nursing homes, using an intention to treat analysis. All nursing homes allocated to the intervention received staff training in person-centred care and social interaction and education regarding antipsychotic medications (antipsychotic review), followed by ongoing delivery through a care staff champion model. The primary outcome measure was QoL (DEMQOL-Proxy). Secondary outcomes were agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory [CMAI]), neuropsychiatric symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory–Nursing Home Version [NPI-NH]), antipsychotic use, global deterioration (Clinical Dementia Rating), mood (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia), unmet needs (Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly), mortality, quality of interactions (Quality of Interactions Scale [QUIS]), pain (Abbey Pain Scale), and cost. Costs were calculated using cost function figures compared with usual costs. In all, 847 people were randomised to WHELD or TAU, of whom 553 completed the 9-month randomised controlled trial. The intervention conferred a statistically significant improvement in QoL (DEMQOL-Proxy Z score 2.82, p = 0.0042; mean difference 2.54, SEM 0.88; 95% CI 0.81, 4.28; Cohen’s D effect size 0.24). There were also statistically significant benefits in agitation (CMAI Z score 2.68, p = 0.0076; mean difference 4.27, SEM 1.59; 95% CI −7.39, −1.15; Cohen’s D 0.23) and overall neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI-NH Z score 3.52, p < 0.001; mean difference 4.55, SEM 1.28; 95% CI −7.07,−2.02; Cohen’s D 0.30). Benefits were greatest in people with moderately severe dementia. There was a statistically significant benefit in positive care interactions as measured by QUIS (19.7% increase, SEM 8.94; 95% CI 2.12, 37.16, p = 0.03; Cohen’s D 0.55). There were no statistically significant differences between WHELD and TAU for the other outcomes. A sensitivity analysis using a pre-specified imputation model confirmed statistically significant benefits in DEMQOL-Proxy, CMAI, and NPI-NH outcomes with the WHELD intervention. Antipsychotic drug use was at a low stable level in both treatment groups, and the intervention did not reduce use. The WHELD intervention reduced cost compared to TAU, and the benefits achieved were therefore associated with a cost saving. The main limitation was that antipsychotic review was based on augmenting processes within care homes to trigger medical review and did not in this study involve proactive primary care education. An additional limitation was the inherent challenge of assessing QoL in this patient group.
Conclusions

These findings suggest that the WHELD intervention confers benefits in terms of QoL, agitation, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, albeit with relatively small effect sizes, as well as cost saving in a model that can readily be implemented in nursing homes. Future work should consider how to facilitate sustainability of the intervention in this setting.
Trial registration

ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN62237498
Author summary
Why was this study done?

People with dementia living in care homes often experience agitation and other symptoms that are difficult to treat and distressing for the individual.

What did the researchers do and find?

We tested the WHELD programme, which combined staff training, social interaction, and guidance on use of antipsychotic medications, in 69 UK care homes in a 9-month clinical trial.
We showed that care homes receiving the WHELD programme saw improvements in quality of life as well as other important symptoms including agitation, behaviour, and pain in people with dementia.
The WHELD programme was also shown to be cost-effective.

What do these findings mean?

The findings show that the WHELD approach is beneficial for people with dementia living in care homes.
WHELD could be provided in an affordable way to improve the lives of these individuals, who often do not receive the care they need.

Improving the quality of life of care home residents with dementia: cost-effectiveness of an optimized intervention for residents with clinically significant agitation in dementia
Romeo R, Zala D, Knapp M, et al Alzheimer's and Dementia, 15, 282-229. 2019

Introduction
To examine whether an optimized intervention is a more cost-effective option than treatment as usual (TAU) for improving agitation and quality of life in nursing home residents with clinically significant agitation and dementia.

Methods
A cost-effectiveness analysis within a cluster-randomized factorial study in 69 care homes with 549 residents was conducted. Each cluster was randomized to receive either the Well-being and Health for people with Dementia (WHELD) intervention or TAU for nine months. Health and social care costs, agitation, and quality of life outcomes were evaluated.

Results
Improvements in agitation and quality of life were evident in residents allocated to the WHELD intervention group. The additional cost of the WHELD intervention was offset by the higher health and social care costs incurred by TAU group residents (mean difference, £2103; 95% confidence interval, −13 to 4219).

Discussion
The WHELD intervention has clinical and economic benefits when used in residents with clinically significant agitation.

The Economic Value of the Adult Social Care sector -England
Kearney J and White A Skills for Care, Leeds. 2018

Key findings

Sector characteristics

An estimated 45,000 sites were involved in providing adult social care in the UK in 2016. Most of these sites provided residential care. A further 72,000 individuals receive direct payments and employ Personal Assistants (PAs);
There were an estimated 1.6 million jobs in the adult social care sector in the UK in 2016. Most of these jobs were involved in providing domiciliary care. There were a further 151,300 jobs due to individuals employing PAs, meaning there were a total of 1.8 million jobs in the adult social care sector in 2016;
There were an estimated 1.2 million Full-Time Equivalents (FTEs) in the adult social care sector in the UK, and a further 69,500 FTEs employed as PAs;
Most of the adult social care workforce providing regulated services were employed at sites run by private sector providers (845,200);
The level of employment in the adult social care sector represents 6% of total employment in the UK; and
The average earnings in the adult social care sector in the UK was estimated to be £17,300.

Economic value of the sector

It was estimated that in 2016, adult social care sector GVA was £23.6 billion (using the income approach). Most of this was estimated to be in domiciliary care (£7.0 billion, 30%);
This represents 1.4% of total GVA in the UK; and
It was estimated that the average level of productivity (GVA generated per FTE) in the adult social care sector was £19,200.

Indirect and induced value of the sector

The indirect effect of the adult social care sector (resulting from the purchase of intermediate goods and services by the adult social care sector in delivering its services) was estimated to contribute a further 603,500 jobs (424,800 FTEs) and £10.8 billion of GVA to the UK economy;
The induced effect of the adult social care sector (resulting from purchases made by those directly and indirectly employed in the adult social care sector) was estimated to contribute a further 251,300 jobs (176,100 FTEs) and £11.1 billion of GVA to the UK economy
The total direct, indirect and induced value of the adult social care sector in the UK was estimated to be 2.6 million jobs (1.8 million FTEs) and £46.2 billion.

The Economic Value of the Adult Social Care sector -UK
Kearney J and White A Skills for Care, Leeds. 2018

Key FindingsSector characteristics■An estimated 45,000sites were involved in providing adult social care in the UKin 2016. Most of these sitesprovided residentialcare. A further 72,000 individuals receive direct payments and employ Personal Assistants (PAs);■There were an estimated 1.6 millionjobs in the adult social care sector in the UKin 2016. Most of these jobs were involved in providing domiciliarycare. There were a further 151,300jobs due to individuals employing PAs, meaning there were a total of 1.8 millionjobs in the adult social care sector in 2016;■There were an estimated 1.2 millionFull-Time Equivalents (FTEs) in the adult social care sector in the UK, and a further 69,500FTEs employed as PAs;■Most of the adult social care workforce providing regulated services were employed at sites run by private sector providers (846,600);■The level of employment in the adult social care sector represents 6% of total employment in the UK; and■The average earnings in the adult social care sector in the UK was estimated to be £17,300.Economic value of the sector(using the income approach)■It was estimated that in 2016, adult social care sector GVA was £24.3billion. Most of this was estimated to be in domiciliarycare (£7.6billion, 31%);■This represents 1.4% of total GVA in the UK;and■It was estimated that the average level of productivity (GVA generated per FTE) in the adult social care sector was £19,700.Indirect and induced value of the sector(using the income approach)■The indirect effect of the adult social care sector (resulting from the purchase of intermediate goods and services by the adult social care sector in delivering its services) was estimated to contribute a further 603,500 jobs (424,800FTEs) and £10.8billion of GVA to the UKeconomy;■The induced effect of the adult social care sector (resulting from purchases made by those directly and indirectly employed in the adult social care sector) was estimated to contribute a further 251,300jobs (176,100FTEs) and £11.1billion of GVA to the UKeconomy; and■The total direct, indirect and induced value of the adult social care sector in the UKwas estimated to be 2.6million jobs (1.8 millionFTEs) and £46.2billion in 2016.

The Economic Value of the Adult Social Care sector -Wales
Kearney J and White A Skills for Care, Leeds. 2018

Key FindingsSector characteristics■An estimated 2,070sites were involved in providing adult social care in Walesin 2016.Most of these sites were provided nursing care.A further 1,700 individuals receive direct payments and employ Personal Assistants (PAs);■There were an estimated 79,800jobs in the adult social care sector in Walesin 2016.Most of these jobs were involved in providing residential care.There were afurther 3,600 jobs due to individuals employing PAs,meaning there were a total of 83,400 jobs in the adult social care sector in 2016;■There were an estimated 60,000 Full-Time Equivalents (FTEs) in the adult social care sector in Wales,and a further 1,600 FTEs employed as PAs;■Most of the adult social care workforce providing regulated services wereemployed at sites run by private sector providers (44,500);■The level of employment in the adult social care sector represents 6% of total employment in Wales; and■The average earnings in the adult social care sector in Wales was estimated to be £16,900.Economic value of the sector(using the income approach)■It was estimated that in 2016, adult social care sector GVA was £1.2billion. Most of this was estimated to be in residential care (£328 million, 28%);■This represents 1.9% of total GVA in Wales;■It was estimated that the average level of productivity (GVA generated per FTE) in the adult social care sector was £18,700; and■The estimated GVA in the adult social care sector in Wales is estimated to be higher than the Agriculture, forestry andfishing, Arts, entertainment andrecreationand Water supply; sewerage andwaste managementsectors.Indirect and induced value of the sector(using the income approach)■The indirect effect of the adult social care sector (resulting from the purchase of intermediate goods and services by the adult social care sector in delivering its services) wasestimated to contribute a further 31,200 jobs (23,000 FTEs) and £554million of GVA to the Welsh economy;■The induced effect of the adult social care sector (resulting from purchases made by those directly and indirectly employed in the adult social care sector) wasestimated to contribute a further 12,200 jobs (9,000 FTEs) and £543 million of GVA to the Welsh economy;and■The total direct, indirect and induced value of the adult social care sector inWales was estimated to be 126,800 jobs (93,600 FTEs) and £2.2 billion in 2016.

The Economic Value of the Adult Social Care Sector in England
ICF GHK Skills for Care, Leeds. 2013

Skills for Care is part of the Sector SkillsCouncil, Skills for Care and Development. It is responsible for improving qualifications, training and development for alladult social care workers in England. Skills for Care had identified a need to establish the economic contribution of the activitiesprovided by the sector, measured as the economic value of the sector. However, the adult social care sector in England has historically been difficult to assess in terms of its economic value, as distinct from the children’s workforce and the wider UK workforce.Skills for Care has recently generated estimates of the number of employers, enterprises and employees in the sector, through its work on the National Minimum Dataset for Adult Social Care (NMDS-SC). ICF GHK was commissioned by Skills for Care to build on this work and to assess the economic significance of the adult social care sector in England to the wider economy.This study was commissioned in support of further policy development towards the sector including consideration of a broader case for investment in skills in the sector. The purpose of the study was to establish the economic contribution of adult social care servicesin England(defined in terms consistentwith the UK national accounts)and provide estimates of:■the annual GDP andGVAgenerated directly by the adult social care sector in England (including the public sector activities within the sector as well as the independent sector) (direct impact);■productivity -GVA per worker for the adult social care sector in England;■the supply chain multiplier for the adult social care sector in England (indirect impact);■the wage multiplier for the adult social care sector in England (induced impact)

The PiTSTOP study: a feasibility cluster randomized trial of delirium prevention in care homes for older people.
Siddiqi N, Cheater F, Collinson M, et al Age and Ageing, 45, 652-661. 2016

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

delirium is a distressing but potentially preventable condition common in older people in long-term care. It is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, functional decline, hospitalization and significant healthcare costs. Multicomponent interventions, addressing delirium risk factors, have been shown to reduce delirium by one-third in hospitals. It is not known whether this approach is also effective in long-term care. In previous work, we designed a bespoke delirium prevention intervention, called ‘Stop Delirium!’ In preparation for a definitive trial of Stop Delirium, we sought to address key aspects of trial design for the particular circumstances of care homes.
DESIGN:

a cluster randomized feasibility study with an embedded process evaluation.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:

residents of 14 care homes for older people in one metropolitan district in the UK.
INTERVENTION:

Stop Delirium!: a 16-month-enhanced educational package to support care home staff to address key delirium risk factors. Control homes received usual care.
MEASUREMENTS:

we collected data to determine the following: recruitment and attrition; delirium rates and variability between homes; feasibility of measuring delirium, resource use, quality of life, hospital admissions and falls; and intervention implementation and adherence.
RESULTS:

two-thirds (215) of eligible care home residents were recruited. One-month delirium prevalence was 4.0% in intervention and 7.1% in control homes. Proposed outcome measurements were feasible, although our approach appeared to underestimate delirium. Health economic evaluation was feasible using routinely collected data.
CONCLUSION:

a definitive trial of delirium prevention in long-term care is needed but will require some further design modifications and pilot work.

 Back to Organisational Framework


NIHR School for
Social Care Research